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Psychotropic medication is any medication prescribed to stabilize or improve mood, mental status, or behavior Kalachnik et al. From: Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, David E. Presti, in Encyclopedia of the Human Brain This class of psychoactive drugs includes ketamine and PCP phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine or phencyclidine.
They are synthetic compounds introduced into medicine to produce an anesthetic loss of sensation without depressing respiration and cardiovascular function as do the general anesthetics. Although PCP is no longer used medically, ketamine is used for both human and veterinary surgical procedures. At subanesthetic doses in humans, ketamine produces an altered state of consciousness that has some psychedelic-like characteristics and may be accompanied by a loss of body sensation. The primary neurochemical effect is as an antagonist at the NMDA-type glutamate receptor.
Psychoactive drugs should be avoided in women who are planning to What is a psychoactive drug pregnant or who are already pregnant. However, this is not always possible and when a decision is taken to commence or continue a psychoactive drug during pregnancy because the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk, the following guidelines should be applied:.
Avoid treatment during the 1st trimester when the risk of teratogenicity is greatest if at all possible. Ensure women taking antiepileptic drugs as mood-stabilizers or for epilepsy take appropriate doses of folate supplements before conception and during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects such advice is now applicable to all women contemplating pregnancy. Use established, rather than recently introduced drugs because more information on their use during pregnancy is available.
Consult the manufacturer of a drug for up-to-date information on its use in pregnancy. Drugs of choice during pregnancy include carbamazepine and fluoxetine. Acamprosate, antiepileptic drugs other than carbamazepine, benzodiazepines, tricycliclithium see above and quetiapine should be avoided. Most psychoactive drugs are secreted in breast milk and although concentrations may What is a psychoactive drug low, breast-feeding infants are at risk of the same adverse effects as adults taking such drugs.
Guidelines similar to those applied to pregnant women should therefore be applied to women who are breast-feeding. Breast-feeding women may take AD drugs but should avoid acamprosate, lithium, risperidone risk of dystoniaquetiapine and clozapine risk of agranulocytosis. Bernard J. Baars, Nicole M. Psychoactive drugs typically focus on one specific step in synaptic aling.
Thus l -dopa is prescribed for Parkinson's patients to increase a precursor for dopamine — an ingredient needed in the manufacture of the neuromodulator dopamine. Since Parkinson's disease involves the die-off of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, l -dopa will stave off its worst effects for some time.
Ultimately, the cells will have to be replaced, however, and much current research is focused on trying to implant dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra SN. In other cases, the effort is to keep a neurotransmitter dwelling longer in the synapse, so that it can repeatedly stimulate the postsynaptic membrane. A famous example is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs — psychoactive drugs that are effective against depression and other disorders. Reuptake is the rather awkward term for recycling serotonin to the cell of origin, and if you can inhibit recycling you can keep the neurotransmitter around longer.
Gaba-ergic drugs like the benzodiazepines increase the amount of GABA in inhibitory synapses in the brain. And we should not forget the role of healthy diets, which supply all of the basic chemistry of the brain, mostly in the form of precursor chemicals, the raw materials from which the cells make all the specific proteins and other products they need.
A great What is a psychoactive drug of medical research is constantly trying to identify more traffic control points in the body and brain.
Channel blockers work by inhibiting the flow of ions like calcium, sodium, and potassium across the cell membrane important in cardiology as well as brain disorders. These are useful points to keep in mind. While the details are awesomely complex, the basic ideas are actually quite simple. There are many kinds of neurons and neuron-like aling cells. Neuroglia were traditionally thought to be only support cells for neurons, but What is a psychoactive drug since been found to do their own transmission and computation.
They out neurons by a factor of ten. The word glia originated from the Greek word for the glue between neurons. Mathias, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health Psychoactive drugs are used by many species and have been used by humans for as long as history has been recorded. Psychoactive drugs alter brain function, resulting in temporary changes in mood, perception, and behavior. These drugs may be used recreationally to intentionally alter one's consciousness, as entheogens Ruck et al.
Psychoactive substance use occurs along a spectrum from beneficial use, to nonproblematic use, through to problematic or harmful use, when use becomes habitual despite negative health impacts. Physical dependence may develop in some classes of drugs. This rate of drug use supports the concept that the majority of users are not addicted. Persons who use drugs do so because of perceived benefits in terms of the drug's desirable effects whether they are mental, physical, social, or spiritual.
When addiction does develop, the reasons for it are a complex interaction of biological, psychological, social, spiritual, and environmental factors. In response to this complexity, a public health model has much to offer in the structuring of pragmatic responses Tucker et al. Harms from drugs come from a variety of causes, which include toxicity e. Some drugs have minimal adverse behavior changes and few toxic effects, such as marijuana Kalant et al. Other drugs are highly toxic or are associated with undesirable behaviors such as crystal methamfetamine.
An evidence-based approach to the control of drugs must recognize the benefits while minimizing the harms. Responding to both the harms and benefits of drugs will require drug-specific approaches rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. Morris, J. Stogner, in Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies Active-duty military personnel experience great deals of stress as a result of their commitment to the armed forces. For many, a less healthy approach at dealing with stress may be selected—one that involves coping through drug and alcohol use.
Alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use are all prominent among the United States military. These deer drugs are chemically structured in a way which allows users to experience a high similar to that of the analogous street drug eg, marijuana for synthetic cannabinoids, methamphetamine or cocaine for synthetic cathinonesbut that does result in failed drug tests.
The current chapter focuses on drug abuse trends among US military personnel, more specifically deer drug use among US active-duty soldiers, and the policies that have been developed. Psychoactive drugs are numerous but are difficult to separate clinically. A useful grouping of drugs is derived from Pradham 18abbreviated here:. Lysergic acid diethylamine LSD.
Phencyclidine PCP. Small children may overdose on these drugs. Amphetamines and related drugs are discussed elsewhere. Three drugs are discussed here, although hallucinations may not be the presenting or dominant symptom and are usually absent in marijuana use. LSD is an illegal compound used for its psychic effects. Physical findings are few but may include mydriasis, tachycardia, rapid respiration, hyperreflexia, and mild ataxia. Changes in blood pressure and pulse are probably due to anxiety. Psychologic changes are variable and depend in part on dosage and setting.
Somatic symptoms include weakness, dizziness, tremors, paresthesia, and drowsiness. Visual disturbances are most common, but auditory, tactile, and gustatory changes are variable. Psychic changes include depersonalization, dream-like sensations, and loss of control of thought. Panic and homicidal or suicidal thoughts occur. Flashbacks, for a few minutes or several hours, can occur days to weeks after exposure. What is a psychoactive drug are similar to the initial episode. In accidental overdose, decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract with emesis, lavage, and charcoal should be carried out.
Anxiety is treated with calm, quiet reassurance. If a drug is required, diazepam, either orally or IV is safest PCP is the most dangerous hallucinogen in widespread use. The clinical patterns and appropriate treatments have been reviewed In a series What is a psychoactive drug patients, clinical patterns were divided into major and minor What is a psychoactive drug. Major syndromes include coma, toxic psychosis, acute brain syndrome, and catatonic syndrome.
In coma, s include nystagmus, hypertension, tachycardia, rigidity, twitching, absent deep tendon reflexes, dystonia, and high or low temperature.What is a psychoactive drug
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