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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Language: French English. More than 3 million deaths a year are attributable to smoking worldwide, and the use of tobacco is on Action des drogues sur le cerveau rise in developing countries.
Consequently, tobacco use is one of the few causes of mortality that is increasing, with deaths projected to reach 10 million annually in 30—40 years. Cannabinoids, which are usually abused by humans in the form of marijuana, have become the most frequently abused illicit class of drugs, but no pharmacological treatment is currently available to treat marijuana abuse and dependence.
Although the dopaminergic system plays a critical role in reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, other neurotransmitters system are implicated as well. Here we will review recent findings obtained with antagonists targeting the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor, the dopamine D 3 receptor and the opioids receptors. These approaches that modulate directly or indirectly dopaminergic transmission represent promising approaches for the treatment of tobacco and marijuana dependences in humans that should be validated in clinical trials.
Reproduit de [ 352 ]. Comme agoniste partiel, le BP peut agir soit comme agoniste ou comme antagoniste, en fonction des taux de dopamine. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Bull Acad Natl Med. Manuscrit de l'auteur; accessible dans PMC sept. Steven R. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer.
Copyright notice. SUMMARY More than 3 million deaths a year are attributable to smoking worldwide, and the use of tobacco is on the rise in developing countries. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Nicotine maintains robust self-administration in rats on a limited-access schedule. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 99 —8. High reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in non-human primates.
Self-administration behavior is maintained by the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana in squirrel monkeys. Nat Neurosci. Self-administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC by drug naive squirrel monkeys. Psychopharmacology Berl ; — Nicotine as a typical drug of abuse in experimental animals and humans. Control of the reinforcing effects of nicotine by associated environmental stimuli in animals and humans. Trends Pharmacol Sci. International Union of Pharmacology.
Classification of cannabinoid receptors Pharmacol Rev. Identification and functional characterization of brainstem cannabinoid CB2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. CB1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of nicotine addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.
SR, a central cannabinoid CB 1 receptor antagonist, blocks the motivational and dopamine-releasing effects of nicotine Action des drogues sur le cerveau rats. Behav Pharmacol. Rimonabant, a CB 1 antagonist, blocks nicotine-conditioned place preferences. Lack of CB1 cannabinoid receptors modifies nicotine behavioural responses, but not nicotine abstinence.
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice fail to self-administer morphine but not other drugs of abuse. Behav Brain Res. Differential involvement of the endocannabinoid system in short- and long-term expression of incentive learning supported by nicotine in rats.
R -methanandamide and Delta 9-THC as discriminative stimuli in rats: tests with the cannabinoid antagonist SR and the endogenous ligand anandamide. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced conditioned place preference and intracerebroventricular self-administration in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. Effects of Rimonabant in the reduction of major cardiovascular risk factors. Blockade of effects of smoked marijuana by the CB1-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist Action des drogues sur le cerveau Arch Gen Psychiatry. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol releases and facilitates the effects of endogenous enkephalins: reduction in morphine withdrawal syndrome without change in rewarding effect.
Eur J Neurosci. Beta-endorphin elevations in the ventral tegmental area regulate the discriminative effects of Deltatetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common mu1 opioid receptor mechanism. Cannabinoids activate mesolimbic dopamine neurons by an action on cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Involvement of mu- delta- and kappa-opioid receptor subtypes in the discriminative-stimulus effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC in rats.
Stimulus effects of delta 9 -THC and its interaction with naltrexone and catecholamine blockers in rats. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 54 —5. Cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome is reduced in pre-proenkephalin knock-out mice. J Neurosci.
Motivational effects of cannabinoids are mediated by mu-opioid and kappa-opioid receptors. Mu-opioid receptor and CREB activation are required for nicotine reward. Opiate antagonists reduce cocaine but not nicotine self-administration.
Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor D 3 as a target for neuroleptics. Dopamine D3 receptor agents as potential new medications for drug addiction. Eur Psychiatry. Adaptive increase in D3 dopamine receptors in the brain reward circuits of human cocaine fatalities. Increased dopamine D3 receptor expression accompanying behavioural sensitization to nicotine in rats. A single cocaine exposure increases BDNF and D3 receptor expressions:implications for drug-conditioning.
Role of the dopamine D3 receptor in reactivity to cocaine-associated cues in mice. Disruption of nicotine conditioning by dopamine D3 receptor ligands. Molecular Psychiatry. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a partial dopamine D 3 receptor agonist.
Selective antagonism at dopamine D3 receptors prevents nicotine-triggered relapse to nicotine-seeking behavior. Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonism by SBA attenuates cocaine reinforcement as assessed by progressive-ratio and variable-cost-variable-payoff fixed-ratio cocaine self-administration in rats. Second-order schedules of drug self-administration in animals. Second-order schedules of drug reinforcement in rats and monkeys: measurement of reinforcing efficacy and drug-seeking behaviour.
Attenuation of cue-controlled cocaine-seeking by a selective D3 dopamine receptor antagonist SBA.Action des drogues sur le cerveau
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